This feature exists in SharePoint 2010 and SharePoint 2013 and is still automatically turned on for Publishing Portal sites. This feature is referred to as lockdown mode and can be turned on or off by enabling/disabling the ViewFormPagesLockdown feature.
To determine if a site has ViewFormPagesLockdown enabled run the following:
get-spfeature -site http://sitecollectionURL
If ViewFormPagesLockDown is listed, it’s enabled.
To toggle lockdown mode to off:
$lockdown = get-spfeature viewformpageslockdown
disable-spfeature $lockdown -url http://sitecollectionURL
If anonymous is already setup, you may need to disable\re-enable anonymous on the site.